Is there a vaccine for HIV/AIDS?
While there is currently no vaccine for HIV/AIDS, research is under way. Many candidate vaccines are presently undergoing either phase I or phase II clinical trials in various countries, including Thailand in South-East Asia. These will be followed by field trials in the community to determine efficacy, which is a time consuming process and will take another 3-5 years or more.
Can male circumcision provide protection against HIV infection?
Yes, the interior side of the foreskin has a mucosal surface, which is more susceptible to trauma than the tougher skin of the penile shaft or the glans. The foreskin also contains high levels of HIV target cells such as Langerhan’s cells.
How effective are condom in preventing HIV?
Consistent and correct use of Latex condoms is fully effective in preventing the spread of HIV through the sexual route.
What Can I Do To Avoid Getting HIV Infection?
Use condoms every time you have anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Unless you're 100% sure your sexual partner is not infected with HIV or other STDs,
If you use spermicidal (birth control) foams and jellies, use them along with condoms, not in place of condoms. The effectiveness of spermicidal in preventing HIV is unknown.
If you are a drug user, Never share needles. Avoid mixing alcohol or other drugs with sexual activities-they might cloud your judgment and lead you to engage in unsafe sexual practices.
Is it safe to work with someone infected with HIV?
Ans. Yes. Most workers face no risk of getting the virus while doing their work. The virus is mainly transmitted through the transfer of blood or sexual fluids. Since contact with blood or sexual fluids is not part of most people's work, most workers are safe.
How well does HIV survive outside the body?
HIV does not survive for very long outside of the human body. HIV is unable to reproduce outside its living host, except under laboratory conditions. Therefore, it does not spread or maintain infectiousness outside its host.
Can I get infection from getting a tattoo and through body piercing?
Tattooing, ear piercing, acupuncture and some kind of dental work all involve instruments that must be sterile to avoid infection.
Can injections transmit HIV?
Yes, if the injecting equipment is contaminated with blood containing HIV. Avoid injections unless absolutely necessary. If you must have an injection, make sure the needle and syringe come straight from a sterile package or have been sterilised properly; a needle and syringe that has been cleaned and then boiled for 20 minutes is ready for reuse. Finally, if you inject drugs of whatever kind, never use anyone else's injecting equipment.
Are patients at dentist’s and doctor’s clinic at risk for getting HIV infection?
Although HIV transmission is possible in healthcare settings, it is extremely rare. Medical experts emphasise that the careful practice of infection control procedures, including universal precautions, protects patients as well as healthcare providers from possible HIV infection in medical and dental offices.
Are health care workers at risk of getting HIV/AIDS at work?
The risk of health care workers getting HIV on the job is very low, especially if they carefully follow universal precautions (i.e., using protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent HIV and other blood-borne infections).
Can I get HIV infection through blood transfusion?
Yes, if the blood contains HIV. In many places blood is now screened for HIV before it is transfused.
Can HIV be transmitted through breast feeding?
Yes. The virus has been found in breast milk in low concentrations and studies have shown that children of HIV-infected mothers can get HIV infection through breast milk. Breast milk, however, has many substances in it that protect an infant's health and the benefits of breast-feeding for both mother and child are well recognized. The slight risk of an infant becoming infected with HIV through breast-feeding is therefore thought to be outweighed by the benefits of breast-feeding.
Can a mother transmit HIV to her unborn child?
HIV-infected mother can infect the child in her womb through her blood. The baby is more at risk if the mother has been recently infected or is in a later stage of AIDS. Transmission can also occur at the time of birth when the baby is exposed to the mother's blood.
Can I get HIV from body fluids like saliva and tears?
Although small amounts of HIV have been found in body fluids like saliva, faeces, urine and tears, there is no evidence that HIV can spread through these body fluids.
Can I get HIV from anal sex?
Yes, it is possible for either sex partner to become infected with HIV during anal sex. Having unprotected (without a condom) anal sex is considered to be a very risky behavior. The person receiving the semen is at greater risk of getting HIV because the lining of the rectum is thin and may allow the virus to enter the body during anal sex. However, a person who inserts his penis into an infected partner also is at risk because HIV can enter through the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis) or through small cuts, abrasions or open sores on the penis.